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Distro - The Women of the Civil Rights Movement

African American women had key roles in civil rights movement. Pivotal in the battles for racial equality in America, they risked their lives and worked tirelessly, demanding a social revolution. 


1. Virginia. 1960. Teaching the illiterate to write so that they may have the right to vote. By Eve Arnold.

2. Mississippi. 1962. Annell Ponder, member of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) was beaten by police in a Winona, Mississippi jail. By Danny Lyon.

3. Virginia. 1960. Core group. Training activist not to react to provocation. By Eve Arnold.

4. Virginia. 1958. Black and white children at a party to introduce mixed schools. By Eve Arnold

5. Alabama. 1963. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) workers stand outside the funeral of the four girls who’d been killed by the bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church. From left to right: Emma Bell, Dorie Ladner, Dona Richards, Sam Shirah and Doris Derby. By Danny Lyon.

6. Arkansas. 1957. Recess on the first day of integration at Little Rock High. A group of girls gather to talk. By Burt Glinn.

7. Georgia. 1963. Demonstrators about to be arrested. By Danny Lyon

8. Washington, D.C. August 28, 1963. Demonstrators sing “We Shall Overcome” after Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream” speech. By Leonard Freed.

More photos from this set here




Harry Potter wizarding genetics decoded

If the wizarding gene is dominant, as J.K. Rowling says in her famous series of Harry Potter books, then how can a wizard be born to muggle parents (non-magical people)? And how can there be squibs (non-magical people born into wizarding lines)?

It seems these baffling genetic questions have finally been answered, thanks to Andrea Klenotiz, a biology student at the University of Delaware.

In a six-page paper, which she sent to Rowling, Klenotiz outlines how the wizarding gene works and even explains why some witches and wizards are more powerful than others.

“Magical ability could be explained by a single autosomal dominant gene if it is caused by an expansion of trinucleotide repeats with non-Mendelian ratios of inheritance,” Klenotiz explains.

What does this mean?

In school we learn the fundamentals of genetics by studying Gregory Mendel’s pea plant experiments and completing basic Punnett squares. Basically, we’re taught that whenever one copy of a gene linked to a dominant trait is present, then the offspring will exhibit that dominant trait, regardless of the other gene.

However, Non-Mendelian genes don’t follow this rule, which is the basis of Klenotiz’s argument. She says that the wizarding gene could be explained if it’s caused by a trinucleotide repeat, which is the repetition of three nucleotides — the building blocks of DNA — multiple times.

These repeats can be found in normal genes, but sometimes many more copies of this repeated code can appear in genes than is standard, causing a mutation. This kind of mutation is responsible for genetic diseases like Huntington’s Disease. Depending upon how many of these repeats occur in the genes, a person could exhibit no symptoms, could have a mild form of the disease or could have a severe form of it.

In her paper, Klenotiz argues that eggs with high levels of these repeats are more likely to be fertilized, a phenomenon known as transmission ratio distortion. She also suggests that the egg or sperm with high levels of repeats is less likely to be created or to survive in the wizarding womb.

This argument answers several questions about wizarding genetics:

How can a wizard be born to muggle parents?

Genetic mutations can randomly appear, meaning anyone could be born with the wizarding gene. However, there’s a better chance of magical offspring occurring if the parents are on the high side of the normal range for mutations.

How can a squib be born to wizard parents?

Although parents with these mutated magical genes would be likely to pass the gene on to their children, there’s still a possibility that any given offspring might not inherit the trinucleotide repeat.

How can varying degrees of magical ability be explained?

The more repeats a wizard inherits, the stronger the magical power he or she will have. If both wizarding parents are powerful wizards, it’s likely their offspring will also be powerful.

You can read Klenotiz’s full paper on wizarding genetics here.

Far and away one of the nerdiest things I’ve ever read. Love it.


Late Night Reviews: “In A World…”, “First Comes Love” and “Wanderlust”


Excerpt from an email to mitchel pictured below…

Then Kiki and I took a drive to San Diego, so between the Spice Girls marathon, the Rent sing-off and the DeBarge moment I didn’t have time to write about the movies I saw this week. Here are some quick thoughts on this week’s films. 

Developmentally Challenged Pirates 
At 11:35 PM the other night I went to the Arclight, by myself in the company of 8 men I’m going to assume were biding time before the Hollywood “Roofie Hour” commenced, to see the new Lake Bell comedy “In A World…” I not say anything but this: GEENA FUCKING DAVIS AND HER FACELIFT MAKE A 3RD ACT CAMEO!

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What Faggots Are Listening To: The Imbecile and The Panty-Dropper


When I read that R. Kelly and Phoenix were doing a remix of “Trying to Be Cool” I googled irony and chuckled to myself. I immediately wanted to write this song off as Sofia Coppola’s functionally imbecilic husband… (honestly make sense of the lyrics to Listomania. I defy you. And don’t blame it on it on the language barrier. He highlights words he sees in Sofia’s scripts and makes Dadaist songs out of them. [sidenote:Dadaists make terrible music [[side sidenote: I don’t know that’s true. It just sounds good. Also Mitchel came up with that script highlighting bit. I just put it under the umbrella of the lost surrealist art subset. {{side side sidenote:I’ve gotten off track}}]]) ANYWAY…I wanted to write this song off as that imbecile and his buddies attempting to become relevant to all the millennials out there that have forgotten they made an album we liked sophomore year of high school by hanging out with a black guy. I mean all the cool kids are doing it, somewhere in America Miley’s twerking right? Then I actually listened to it and was won over. Holy fuck. Who knew that’s all I needed to cure myself of my Viagra-induced premature erectile dysfunction?

2 Faggots


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